The twelfth season of excavations of the ‘Selz Foundation Hazor Excavations in Memory of Yigael Yadin’ took place between 26 June and 7 August 2001. The excavations were sponsored by the Philip and Muriel Center for Biblical Archaeology at the Hebrew University, the Israel Exploration Society and the Selz Foundation, New York. The project also receives financial support from the Rothschild (Yad Hanadiv) Foundation. The excavations were carried out within the Hazor National Park and benefit from the full cooperation of the National Parks Authority.
The 65 participants of the 2001 season, students and other volunteers, came from various countries in Europe, as well as from the U.S. and Israel. A group of students of theology from Romania and students from the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University also took part in the excavations.
The ‘Selz Foundation Hazor Excavations in Memory of Yigael Yadin’ are directed by Amnon Ben-Tor of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University. The Hazor expedition included A. Zarzecki-Peleg (field archaeologist) and area supervisors D. Ben-Ami, M. Cimadevilla, C. Rubio, D. Sandhouse, B. Villegas and S. Zuckerman. Assistant area supervisors were: E. Crawford, A. Christensen, R. Coltrane, R. Lupo and S. Peled. The excavation surveyors were R. Bonfil and I. Strand. Restoration work was carried out under the supervision of O. Cohen. A. Kochavi-Goldstein and S. Katz were responsible for recording the finds. The excavation photographer was H. Shafir, and S. Yedid was the excavation administrator. As in previous seasons, the expedition was housed in the Gesher guest house on Mount Canaan, Safed.
of the aims of the 2001 season was to uncover the south-western and
south-eastern corners of the Canaanite palace. The former was found in Area
A-1 and the latter in Area A-7. In both areas, the Late Bronze Age remnants,
constituting the southern part of the Canaanite palace, were severely damaged
by the Iron Age buildings superimposed on the earlier remains. The Iron Age
stratigraphic sequence in Areas A-1 and A-7 spanned the ninth–eighth
centuries B.C.E. The western edge of the wall that surrounded the palace
courtyard on the south was uncovered in Area A-7, abutting the south-eastern
corner of the palace. Also found here were remains of an entrance into the
courtyard, located directly opposite another entrance into the courtyard which
was next to the north-eastern corner of the palace.
This is an extension of Area A-3 eastwards, in order to connect it with the
area previously excavated further east. Area A-2 is located north of the
palace courtyard, while Area A-3 is north of the palace proper. The
unification of both areas will provide a better understanding of the palace
complex as a whole, throughout its various phases. It will also extend the
area in which remnants of the Intermediate Bronze Age (= MB I) and the Middle
Bronze Age IIB were encountered in previous seasons.
During the 2001 season, Iron Age structures of a domestic nature, arranged along a gravel paved street, were uncovered. These are superimposed on remnants of debris of the Late Bronze Age palace.
Area A-4. This was divided into two sub-areas. In the higher part, a stratigraphic sequence of Iron Age dwellings, spanning the ninth to eighth centuries B.C.E., was uncovered. Some of these are considerably well preserved: one of the buildings with plastered walls still stands to a height of more than 2 m. To the east of these, the inner wall of the defensive casemate wall (Yadin’s Stratum X = tenth century B.C.E.), was uncovered.
In the southern, lower part of Area A-4, the excavation of the massive Late Bronze Age walls, first encountered in the 2000 season, was continued. Due to the width of some of these walls (over 3 m.) and the relatively small area of excavation, neither the nature of the structure (perhaps part of the monumental palace entrance or connected somehow with the city defences) nor its precise date could be determined. In order to clarify those matters the area will be extended southwards in the coming seasons of excavation (2002 and 2003).
this area the upper pavement covering the street and the entrance to the
‘citadel’ was removed in order to investigate earlier phases of
construction. An earlier pavement, differing in nature from the later one, was
revealed. This earlier pavement predates the construction of the
‘citadel’, the western wall of which cuts through it. This earlier phase
ended in a conflagration, similar to the one that brought an end to the later
phase. The ceramic assemblage associated with this earlier phase, albeit
meagre, seems to place the date of this earlier destruction somewhere in the
Late Bronze Age I (fifteenth century B.C.E.). This destruction is most
probably contemporary with the end of Stratum 2 in the lower city, which may
have been the result of the military campaign led by Thutmosis III.
addition to the several drainage systems uncovered in this area during
previous seasons, two large drainage channels were uncovered this season.
These are the largest and most elaborate ones encountered so far, one covered
by well-cut basalt orthostats which were placed here clearly in secondary use.
This drain leads into the main drain which was uncovered here in previous
seasons. The northern edge, or perhaps even the outlet, of this drain was
found next to the Hazor museum at Kibbutz Ayelet ha-Shahar by Yadin’s
expedition in 1968 (Area N).
infant burial, accompanied by some jewellery, several vessels and a MB scarab,
was encountered within the orthostat covered drain. When, why and how this
burial could have been placed within the drain is not clear.
considerable effort was directed this year towards conservation, restoration
and construction of supporting walls of the Late Bronze Age palace. These
works are part of the planned roof which is to cover the entire palace area in
order to protect it—and primarily its delicate mudbrick walls—from the
elements (mainly rain and winds). In addition to the Hazor expedition, this
project is also sponsored by the
Israel Government Tourist Corporation and by the Consejería de Educación y
Cultura—Comunidad de Madrid. We plan to finish spanning the roof within the
next two years.
first stage of this work was undertaken during the present season: twelve pits
2.2 m.) were excavated. More than 20 tons of concrete were poured into each of
these pits, to form the foundations of the pillars that will carry the large
roof (over 1000 sq. m. ). With the exception of one pit, in which several
mudbricks and a assortment of MB–LB sherds were found, all other pits were
dug into the fill placed by the builders of the palace prior to its
construction. This fill consists of alternating layers of earth and small
stones and a small amount of MB–LB sherds.
works were carried out by a group of Druze builders from the Golan Heights,
supervised by the excavation conservator O. Cohen.
|Copyright ©,2004 , The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. All Rights Reserved.|